Etudier les fonctions cognitives qui caractérisent l’intelligence humaine et animale


Accueil > LPC > Séminaires

2012/13

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Secrétariat : Aline.Pelissier@univ-amu.fr

Séminaires :

Laboratoire Psychologie Cognitive/Fédération Recherche 3C : Comportement, Cerveau, Cognition

 

Septembre 2012

14 

21 Michael Zock Labex BLRI

28 Sally Andrews Labex BLRI

 

Octobre 2012

Christopher Olivola

12 Alban Lemasson 

19 11h Evelina Fedorenko

 16h Ted Gibson Labex BLRI

26 Réunion Pôle 3C

Novembre 2012

9

16

23 11h Swann Pichon

 16h Jean-François Démonet  Labex BLRI

30 Guillaume Rousselet

Décembre 2012

Kristof Strijkers

14 Martijn Meeter

 Thèse Jasmin Sadat

17 Thèse Kim Uittenhove

18 Thèse Mariel Leclère

20 Thèse Claire Enea-Drapeau

21 11h Emmanuel Dupoux Labex BLRI

Bonne Année

Janvier 2013

11 Jasmin Sadat

18

25

Février 2013

Lisi Beyersmann

Harald Baayen Labex BLRI 16h

15 Simon Kirby Labex BLRI  16h

Mars 2013

Emanuele Ciriolo

13 Thèse Marina Yao-N’Dré

14 (Jeudi) Marc Brysbaert

22 Arnaud Delorme

29

Avril 2013

5 11h Dominique Muller

 16h Christian Fullgrabe Labex BLRI

12 AG BLRI (Aix)

Mai 2013

Gregory Zelinsky

10 

17 Marte Otten /Salle LSH 505/Espace Yves Mathieu

24 Cristina Baus

31 Laurent Madelain

 

Juin 2013

7 11h Denis Mareschal

  16h Robert Hartsuiker Labex BLRI

14 James Adelman

17 lundi 9h Thèse Joanna Lucenet

18 mardi 11h Yi-Yuan Tang

21 Axel Mecklinger

28 

 

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Bonne Rentrée

Septembre

 6 11h Britta Biedermann 

 16h Gary Dell Labex BLRI

13

19 Jeudi 9h30 Thèse Francois Maltese

20

27 

Octobre

11 Marcela Perrone-Berolotti (Grenoble) (cf FXA et CMH)

18 Sabine Born (Centre Attention et Vision, LPP, Paris) (cf SC)

Novembre

8 Patrick Haggard (University College of London) - http://www.icn.ucl.ac.uk/Staff-Lists/MemberDetails.php?FirstName=Patrick&LastName=Haggard

15 Fabrizio Butera (SSP. Institut ScSoc. Lausanne)(cf PH)

22

29

Décembre

6

20

 

2014

Bonne Année !

 

Janvier

10 Axel Cleeremans (cf AR)

17

24

31

 

Février

 7

14

21

 

Mars

14
21

28

 

Avril

 4

11

18

 

Mai

16

23

 

Juin

 6 Olivier Desrichard (Université de Genève)

13

20

27

 

Juillet

 4


11

 

 

 

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Vendredi 21 Septembre 2012

16h-17h et plus......

(Salle des Voûtes, Fédération de Recherche 3 C (Comportement, Cerveau, Cognition)

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

(Labex BLRI)

 

Michael ZOCK

(Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale (LIF),
CNRS & Aix-Marseille Université)

Si tous les chemins mènent à Rome, ils ne se valent pas tous.
Le problème d’accès lexical en production

 

Tout le monde a déjà rencontré le problème suivant : on cherche un mot (ou le nom d’une personne) que l’on connaît, sans être en mesure d’y accéder à temps. Les travaux des psychologues ont montré que les personnes se trouvant dans cet état savent énormément de choses concernant le mot recherché (sens, nombre de syllabes, origine, etc.), et que les mots avec lequel ils le confondent lui ressemblent étrangement (lettre ou son initial, catégorie syntaxique, champ sémantique, etc.).
Mon objectif (à long terme) est de réaliser un programme tirant bénéfice de cet état de faits pour assister un locuteur ou rédacteur à (re)trouver le mot qu’il a sur le bout de la langue. À cette fin, je prévois d’ajouter à un dictionnaire électronique existant un index d’association (collocations rencontrées dans un grand corpus). Autrement dit, je propose de construire un dictionnaire analogue à celui des êtres humains, qui, outre les informations conventionnelles (définition, forme écrite, informations grammaticales) contiendrait des liens (associations), permettant de naviguer entre les idées (concepts) et leurs expressions (mots). Un tel dictionnaire permettrait donc l’accès à l’information recherchée soit par la forme (lexicale : analyse), soit par le sens (concepts : production), soit par les deux.
Ma démarche est fondée sur plusieurs hypothèses.
1° Les stratégies de recherche dans notre dictionnaire mental dépendent, bien entendu, de la représentation des mots dans notre cerveau. Hélas, on n’a toujours pas une carte précise de cette organisation. Quant à la recherche on pourrait dire qu’elle s’opère essentiellement sur deux axes :
• Le premier décrit le passage des idées à leurs expression (idées, forme, sons). Cette vision représente l’ordre naturel des ’choses’ : partant du sens on va vers l’expression (forme sonore ou graphique du mot) en passant par les concepts lexicaux (lèmmes dans la théorie de Levelt).
• Le deuxième axe est plus proche de ce qu’on peut considérer comme une forme d’organisation de mots. Il représente leur usage (fréquent/typique) dans le discours. C’est un graphe de co-occurences ou d’associations.
Il y a donc deux idées complémentaires : (a) l’expression des idées au sens restreint (passage des concepts aux mots) et (b) les rôles que ces idées (concepts/mots) peuvent jouer dans le cadre d’une phrase (discours, contextes possibles des mots). Ce contexte précise d’ailleurs souvent le sens des mots.
Si le 1er axe représente la voie naturelle en production, voie empruntée pratiquement en toutes circonstances (plan A), le 2ème axe (voie associative) est la voie de réchange (plan-B), utilisée en cas d’échec du plan A. Le premier processus est automatique (rapide et inconscient), tandis que le second est contrôlé, donc lent est accessible à notre conscience. C’est lui qui m’intéresse, car il réflête la situation dans laquelle un auteur se trouve lorsqu’il fait appel à un dictionnaire ou thesaurus.
2° Le dictionnaire mental est un vaste réseau dont les noeuds sont des concepts ou mots (lemmes ou expressions) et les liens essentiellement des associations. Etant donné que tout est lié, tout peut être trouvén du moins en principe : il suffit de suivre des bons liens. Chercher un mot consisterait donc d’entrer dans ce réseau, puis de suivre les liens pour (re)trouver le terme faisant obstruction.
3° Le dictionnaire mental est à la fois un dictionnaire et une encyclopédie. Etant donné que les mots sont utilisés pour coder des connaissances du monde, ces dernières peuvent être sollicitées pour nous aider à retrouver le mot recherché (ainsi le terme ’baguette’ pourrait-il être obtenu à partir de ’restaurant chinois’ ou à partir de ’type de couvert’). Tout nous fera penser à qc, tout est associé à qc. De ce fait, tout est susceptible d’être évoqué par un terme lié, fût-il indirect (chaîne associative ; recherche à plusieurs pas).
4° Les informations permettant d’effectuer ce type de navigation (atlas sémantique) se trouvent non seulement dans notre cerveau, mais aussi dans nos productions (manifestation linguistiques : phrases, textes). Comme ces traces constituent une forme d’extériorisation de l’organisation des idées (concepts/mots) dans notre cerveau, on peut s’en servir pour créer un modèle analogue. Ceci donnera un atlas ou une carte sémantique permettant alors aux auteurs de s’orienter pour trouver le mot qui leur fait (momentanément) défaut.
Voici mon ambition. L’objectif de cet exposé est de montrer comment on pourrait construire une telle ressource et comment s’en servir.


michael.zock@lif.univ-mrs.fr

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Vendredi 28 Septembre 2012

16h-17h et plus......

(Salle des Voûtes, Fédération de Recherche 3 C (Comportement, Cerveau, Cognition)

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

(Labex BLRI)

Sally Andrews
(University of Sydney)

Not all skilled readers have cracked the code :
The role of lexical expertise in skilled reading

Most theories and computational models of skilled reading have been built upon average data for unselected samples of university students, reflecting an implicit assumption that all skilled readers read in the same way. I will review evidence that challenges this assumption by demonstrating that individual differences in measures of written language proficiency predict systematic variability in both the early stages of lexical retrieval indexed by masked priming, and in tasks assessing the contribution of lexical retrieval to sentence processing. These data highlight the critical role played by precise lexical representations in supporting optimally efficient reading.

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Vendredi 5 Octobre

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

 

Christopher Y. OLIVOLA

(University of Warwick)

A Theory of Preferences Built on Fundamental Psychological Principles

 

Most theories of decision making describe preferences in terms of underlying utility functions (i.e., stable representations of value), while remaining largely agnostic about the specific cognitive processes that drive these preferences. However, in order to fully understand the determinants and moderators of valuation and choice we need to develop (and test) process-level theories of decision making. In this talk, I describe our efforts to develop such a theory and to test its predictions. This novel framework, which we call ‘Decision-by-Sampling’ (DbS) theory, capitalizes on parallels between perception and decision-making. DbS uses fundamental psychological principles to explain how people evaluate decision attributes and ultimately construct their preferences. I start by describing DbS and how it derives preferences from a small set of simple, yet well-established, cognitive operations. A central implication of DbS is that evaluations (and, by extension, preferences) are fundamentally relative, and they emerge from a series of comparisons with exemplars sampled from memory. Next, I describe several strands of research designed to test the various implications and predictions of DbS. I show how DbS can explain a wide variety of empirical phenomena in several decision making domains. These studies show that DbS can simultaneously explain certain context effects, framing effects, individual differences, and cross-cultural differences. I will conclude my presentation by discussing the broader implications of DbS for understanding (and modeling) preferences.

(https://sites.google.com/site/chrisolivola/).

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Vendredi 12 Octobre 2012

11h-12h

(Amphi Fabry,

Centre St Charles, Marseille)


Alban LEMASSON
(Université de Rennes 1, Institut universitaire de France)

 

Rudiments de langage chez les primates non-humains ?
 

La communication vocale des primates non-humains a longtemps été considérée comme déterminée uniquement génétiquement et émotionnellement, encourageant les théoriciens de l’origine du langage humain à en rechercher les précurseurs ailleurs, notamment dans les gestes des grands singes. Pourtant, les études menées au cours des dix dernières années, particulièrement sur les cris des cercopithèques forestiers, démontrent un parallèle avec plusieurs caractéristiques fondamentales du langage (p.ex. sémantique, affixation, syntaxe, prosodie, conversation, accommodation et convergence vocale). Les différences entre le langage humain et la communication vocale des singes, qui sont des actes sociaux comparables, seraient donc plus d’ordre quantitatif que qualitatif.

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Vendredi 19 0ctobre

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Evelina FEDORENKO

(MIT)


A novel framework for a neural architecture of language

 

What cognitive and neural mechanisms do we use to understand language ? Since Broca’s and Wernicke’s seminal discoveries in the 19th century, a broad array of brain regions have been implicated in linguistic processing spanning frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, both hemispheres, and subcortical and cerebellar structures. However, characterizing the precise contribution of these different structures to linguistic processing has proven challenging. In this talk I will argue that high-level linguistic processing - including understanding individual word meanings and combining them into more complex structures/meanings - is accomplished by the joint engagement of two functionally and computationally distinct brain systems. The first is comprised of the classic “language regions” on the lateral surfaces of left frontal and temporal lobes that appear to be functionally specialized for linguistic processing (e.g., Fedorenko et al., 2011 ; Monti et al., 2009, 2012). And the second is the fronto-parietal "multiple demand" network, a set of regions that are engaged across a wide range of cognitive demands (e.g., Duncan, 2001, 2010). Most past neuroimaging work on language processing has not explicitly distinguished between these two systems, especially in the frontal lobes, where subsets of each system reside side by side within the region referred to as “Broca’s area” (Fedorenko et al., in press). Using methods which surpass traditional neuroimaging methods in sensitivity and functional resolution (Fedorenko et al., 2010 ; Nieto-Castañon & Fedorenko, in press ; Saxe et al., 2006), we are beginning to characterize the important roles played by both domain-specific and domain-general brain regions in linguistic processing.

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Vendredi 19 Octobre

16h-17h et plus...........

(Salle des voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Labex BLRI

 

Ted GIBSON

(MIT)

 

The communicative basis of word order

 

Some recent evidence suggests that subject-object-verb (SOV) may be the default word order for human language. For example, SOV is the preferred word order in a task where participants gesture event meanings (Goldin-Meadow et al. 2008). Critically, SOV gesture production occurs not only for speakers of SOV languages, but also for speakers of SVO languages, such as English, Chinese, Spanish (Goldin-Meadow et al. 2008) and Italian (Langus & Nespor, 2010). The gesture-production task therefore plausibly reflects default word order independent of native language. However, this leaves open the question of why there are so many SVO languages (41.2% of languages ; Dryer, 2005). We propose that the high percentage of SVO languages cross-linguistically is due to communication pressures over a noisy channel (Jelinek, 1975 ; Brill & Moore, 2000 ; Levy et al. 2009). In particular, we propose that people understand that the subject will tend to be produced before the object (a near universal cross-linguistically ; Greenberg, 1963). Given this bias, people will produce SOV word order – the word order that Goldin-Meadow et al. show is the default – when there are cues in the input that tell the comprehender who the subject and the object are. But when the roles of the event participants are not disambiguated by the verb, then the noisy channel model predicts either (i) a shift to the SVO word order, in order to minimize the confusion between SOV and OSV, which are minimally different ; or (ii) the invention of case marking, which can also disambiguate the roles of the event participants. We test the predictions of this hypothesis and provide support for it using gesture experiments in English, Japanese and Korean. We also provide evidence for the noisy channel model in language understanding in English.

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Vendredi 23 Novembre

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

 

Swann PICHON

(Laboratoire de neurologie et d’imagerie de la cognition, Université de Genève)
 


Modulation of amygdala functioning by positive and negative affective states
 

 Much of past research in affective neuroscience has focused on how transient emotion processing influences perception or how top-down cognitive control modulates emotion processing. However investigation of such effects is often stimulus-locked, which does not necessarily provide an accurate model for understanding the effects of emotional states on perception and attention on a longer timescale. Using fMRI, we will show that induction of positive or negative mood for several minutes - via exposure to semantic information or movie clips - sensitize or desensitize subsequent amygdala responding to social and emotional information. We will also question the claim that repeated exposure to violent media desensitizes individuals to violence and participates to the long-term development of anti-social behaviours (Anderson et al 2010), and discuss how cognitive neuroscience may help testing such assumptions.

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Vendredi 23 Novembre

16h-17h et plus....

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

St Charles, Marseille)

Labex BLRI

Jean-François DEMONET

(Département Neurosciences Cliniques, CHUV et Université de Lausanne)

Cartographie des fonctions du Langage par stimulation électrique corticale

Mon topo concernera les substrats cérébraux du langage explorés par stimulation per-opératoire du cortex en condition de chirurgie éveillée ; je présenterai quelques données récentes de mon groupe concernant en particulier le langage écrit.

"Many different techniques are used to investigate the brain correlates of cognitive functions ; while the most widely used is functional MRI, other techniques can offer complimentary sources of evidence on the brain sites critical for specific functions such as the many processes involved language. Awake surgery offers the unique opportunity to test directly and on-line the interference effects of electrical stimulation on cognitive functions while the operated on subject is performing. Recent results will be presented on this type of cortical mapping of language, especially reading and writing."

http://cvscience.aviesan.fr/cv/594/jean-francois-demonet
http://www.u825.toulouse.inserm.fr/
 

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Vendredi 30 Novembre 2012

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Guillaume ROUSSELET

(Glasgow)


Measuring visual processing speed using ERPs : a few bumps in the road (low-level factors, filtering, statistics & individual differences)

In this talk I will describe some attempts at measuring the speed of visual processing using a very constrained setting : human subjects look at briefly presented simplified pictures of object categories (e.g. faces, houses, textures) while we record their EEG. Even in these simplified conditions, estimating when ERPs to different categories differ from each other is not a trivial task. I will describe several issues that must be addressed, including : control for low-level differences among picture categories, ERP filtering distortions, control for multiple comparisons, statistical power, group vs. single-subject analyses, test-retest reliability. Other factors such as screen luminance and subjects’ age can dramatically affect processing speed. Beyond reporting when ERPs differ, I will describe different ways to quantify by how much they differ - the effect sizes, and how they differ - how the ERP distributions change between two conditions. Finally, I will discuss why we should go Bayesian to estimate the time course of visual processing.

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Vendredi 7 Décembre 2012

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

 

Kristof STRIJKERS

(CNRS, LPC – Université Aix-Marseille)

The dynamics of language production : Fast neuronal circuits in a proactive brain.
 

We produce speech at an immense speed, seemingly effortlessly and with very few errors. Nevertheless, even uttering a single word is a complex cognitive skill requiring the retrieval and orchestration over time of distinct pieces of linguistic knowledge. In the field of language production it is generally agreed upon that the speed and efficiency with which our brain computes words for speech stems (at least) from two important principles : (1) the architecture underlying language production counts on a well organized and timed hierarchical structure and (2) there is a clear separation between automatic retrieval of words which occurs in the initial phases of processing and goal-directed selection which takes place at later stages of speech preparation. In this talk I will challenge these two cemented principles in the field with recent neurophysiological evidence. In a first study, I will discuss MEG data showing rapid parallel retrieval of lexico-semantic and phoneme related representations associated with picture names. In a second study, I will present ERP data showing proactive modulations of the lexical network in function of a speaker’s goal-directed intention. I will argue that these data sets are hard to reconcile with the traditional views on the spatio-temporal dynamics in language production and instead favor a conception of speech in which the different linguistic representations are subserved by overlapping neuronal circuits in a proactive brain.

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Vendredi 14 Décembre

 11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Martijn MEETER

(VU University of Amsterdam)

Why there is no top-down inhibition of specific saccades

 

Saccade trajectories are rarely straight, and irrelevant distractors can make them deviate towards their location, or away from it. The oculomotor mechanisms that produce deviation towards distractors have been thoroughly explored in behavioral, neurophysiological and computational studies. The mechanisms underlying deviation away, on the other hand, remain unclear. Behavioral findings suggest a mechanism of spatially focused, top-down inhibition in a saccade map, and deviation away has become a tool to investigate such inhibition. However, this inhibition hypothesis has little neuroanatomical or neurophysiological support. Here, I will discuss a computational model of the saccade system that incorporates another hypothesis : That deviation away results from an unbalanced saccade drive from the brainstem, caused by spike rate adaptation in brainstem long-lead burst neurons. The model simulates a wide range of findings on saccade trajectories, including findings that have classically been interpreted to support inhibition views. Furthermore, the model predicts that saccade latency affects deviation away in some, but not other conditions. I will discuss an experiment that confirms this prediction, and another that suggests that inhibition of distractor features also does not exist.

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Vendredi 21 Décembre

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

(Labex BLRI )

 

Emmanuel DUPOUX

(Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, UMR8554, EHESS-ENS-CNRS)
 

Quantitative models of early language acquisition

The past 40 years of psycholinguistic research has shown that infants learn their first language at an impressive speed. During the first year of life, even before they start to talk, infants converge on the basic building blocks of the phonological structure of their language. Yet, the mechanisms that they use to achieve this early phonological acquisition are still not well known. We show that a modeling approach based on machine learning algorithms and speech technology applied to large speech databases can help to shed light on the early pattern of development. First, we argue that because of acoustic variability, phonemes cannot be acquired directly from the acoustic signal ; only highly context dependent and talker dependent phones or phones fragments can be extracted in a bottom-up way. Second, words cannot be acquired directly from the acoustic signal either, but a small number of protowords or sentence fragments can be extracted on the basis of repetition frequency. Third, these two kinds of protolinguistic units can interact with one another in order to converge with more abstract units. The proposal is therefore that the different levels of the phonological system are acquired in parallel, through increasingly more precise approximations. This accounts for the largely overlapping development of lexical and phonological knowledge during the first year of life.

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Vendredi 11 Janvier 2013

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

 

Jasmin SADAT

(LPC/équipe langage)


The bilingual cost in speech production – studies of phonological and articulatory processes

Abstract
In this talk I will examine the consequences of bilingualism on speech production. Previous research has shown that bilingual speakers experience a cost compared to monolinguals in a variety of linguistic experiments. We investigated the origins of the bilingual cost by exploring influences of particular variables such as phonological similarity. Moreover, we investigated the scope of the bilingual cost by assessing speech performance, focusing on articulatory durations and noun-phrase production. We provide evidence that increased phonological similarity among words within one language slows speech, whereas increased phonological similarity across translations helps bilinguals to overcome the bilingual cost. In addition, our results show that the bilingual cost generalizes to articulatory durations and noun-phrase production. The current research provides a more specific understanding of speech processing at phonological and articulatory stages in mono- and bilinguals, and extends our knowledge on the bilingual cost in speech production.

Résumé
Ce séminaire visera à présenter les conséquences du bilinguisme sur la production de la parole. Des recherches antérieures ont montré que les locuteurs bilingues sont moins performants que les monolingues dans différentes expériences linguistiques. Nous avons étudié les origines du coût du bilinguisme en explorant l’influence de variables spécifiques comme la similitude phonologique. En outre, nous avons examiné la portée du coût du bilinguisme en évaluant des durées articulatoires de la parole et la production de groupes nominaux. Nous rapportons que l’augmentation de la similarité phonologique entre les mots d’une même langue ralentit la parole, alors que l’augmentation de la similarité phonologique entre les langues aide les bilingues à surmonter le coût bilingue. En outre, nos résultats ont montré que le coût du bilinguisme se généralise aux phases articulatoires et à la production de groupes nominaux. Ces recherches fournissent de nouvelles données sur le traitement de la parole aux niveaux phonologiques et articulatoires chez les locuteurs mono- et bilingues, et élargissent nos connaissances sur le coût du bilinguisme en production de parole.

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Vendredi 1° Février

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

 

Lisi BEYERSMANN

Morphological processing in adult and developing readers.

In this talk, I will present the outcomes of my recent research, which focuses on understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying reading in adults and children. A particular focus of my research concerns the rapid processing of words with multiple “morphemes” (i.e., farmer, farms and farming). Across four studies (testing 456 participants) I found that adults rapidly “decompose” words like farmer into multiple subunits (farm+er) independently of whether they share the same meaning (farmer, someone who farms) or not (moth+er). The decomposition of words like mother is particularly revealing as it reflects a highly automatised form of morphemic processing, and so represents the fundamental ability of rapid, unconscious word reading. A further aspect of my research is applying methods designed for adults to study reading proficiency in children. Based on techniques used with adults, I designed assessment materials to investigate the development of children’s reading skills. My research shows that children aged 8-11 decompose words like farmer into subunits (farm+er) when meaning is present, but not when meaning is absent (mother). This shows that even at the age of 11, children have not yet automatised the decomposition of words into morphemes.

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Vendredi 8 Février 2013

 16h-17h (et plus......)

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C,

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Labex BLRI

 

Harald BAAYEN

(Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany)

(with Victor Kuperman, and Michael Ramscar)

Decomposition makes things worse : A discrimination learning approach to the
time course of understanding compounds in reading.

The current literature on morphological processing is dominated by the view that reading a complex word is a two-staged process, with an early blind morphemic decomposition process followed by a late process of semantic recombination (Taft, 2004 ; Rastle and Davis, 2008a). Various behavioral and magneto- and electroencephalography studies suggest semantic recombination would take place approximately 300-500 ms post onset of the visual stimulus (Lavric et al., 2007). However, eye-tracking studies show that both simple and complex words are read at a rate of 4 to 5 words/second (Rayner, 1998). We report an eye-tracking experiment tracing the reading of English compounds in simple sentences. For about 33% of the trials, a single fixation sufficed for understanding the meaning of the compound. For such trials, the meaning of the compound was available already some 140 ms after the eye first landed on the modifier. All first fixations also revealed an effect of the semantic relatedness of the modifier and head constituents, gauged with a latent
semantic analysis (LSA) similarity measure. These results indicate a much earlier involvement of semantics than predicted by the first-form-then-meaning scenario. Second and subsequent fixation durations revealed that at later processing stages very different semantic processes were involved, gauged by modifier-compound and head-compound LSA similarity measures. Computational modeling of the first fixation with naive discrimination learning (Baayen et al., 2011) indicated that the early (and only the early) semantic effect arises due to the model’s connection weights’ sensitivity to the collocational co-occurence statistics of orthographic and semantic information carried by word trigrams. We understand the LSA effects arising at later fixations as
reflecting semantic processes seeking to resolve the uncertainty about the targeted meaning that arises as an unintended and time-costly side effect of later fixations causing the head’s meaning to be co-activated along with the compound’s meaning. Instead of viewing blind morphological decomposition as the gateway through which meaning can be reached, we think that when the meaning of the head becomes available, due to the (non-morphological) nature of visual information uptake when the initial landing position of the eye is non-optimal, understanding comes with greater cognitive costs : Decomposition makes things worse. We speculate that the late semantic effects in the electrophysiological literature, especially those around the N400 time window, reflect late semantic cleaning operations.

References
Baayen, R., Milin, P., Durdevic, D., Hendrix, P., and Marelli, M. (2011). An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on
naive discriminative learning. Psychological Review, 118:438-481.

Lavric, A., Clapp, A., and Rastle, K. (2007). ERP evidence of morphological analysis from orthography : A masked priming study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19:866-877.

Rastle, K. and Davis, M. (2008a). Morphological decomposition based on the analysis of orthography. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23:942-971.

Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing : 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124:372-422.

Taft, M. (2004). Morphological decomposition and the reverse base frequency effect. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A:745-765. 

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Vendredi 15 Février 2013

16h-17h et plus...

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Chales, Marseille)

(Labex BLRI)

 

Simon KIRBY

(Univ. Edinburgh)


Simplicity and Expressivity Compete in Cultural Evolution : Linguistic Structure is the Result

Language, like other human behaviours, exhibits striking systematic structure. For example, two central design features of human language are the way in which sentences are composed of recombinable words, and the way in which those words in turn are created out of combinations of reusable sounds. These properties make language unique among communication systems and enable us to convey an open-ended array of messages.

Recently, researchers have turned to cultural evolution as a possible mechanism to explain systematic structure such as this in language. In this talk, I will briefly present a series of experiments and a computational model that demonstrate why this is a promising avenue for research. Using diffusion chain methods in the laboratory, we can observe how behaviour evolves as it is transmitted through repeated cycles of learning and production (a process known as "iterated learning"). Across a wide range of experimental contexts, we observe an apparent universal : behaviour transmitted by iterated learning becomes increasingly compressible. When combined with a pressure to also be expressive, this may be sufficient to deliver up the structural design features of language.

Although this work is focussed on human language as a test case, the conclusions are quite general. Cultural transmission by iterated learning is an adaptive process that delivers systematic structure for free.

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Vendredi 8 Mars

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Emanuele CIRIOLO

(Université Libre de Bruxelles)

The application of Behavioural insights to EU policymaking

L’économie comportementale à l’oeuvre au sein de l’UE

Summary :
At the European level, behavioural economics is increasingly being integrated
in policymaking. This applies to a number of policy areas and, in particular,
to consumer and competition policy, spanning issues including terms in consumer
contracts and the design of remedies in competition cases. Emanuele Ciriolo
discusses the impact of behavioural economics, and presents some interesting
new findings from the first applications, as well as from recent and on-going
studies.

**************

<<<ATTENTION>>>
 

Jeudi 14 Mars

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Marc BRYSBAERT

(Ghent University, Belgium)
 

Atypical laterality in healthy students : Consequences of right hemisphere speech dominance

In recent years it has become possible to assess speech dominance in a noninvasive and valid way with the use of fMRI. In this talk I will discuss how we found of sample of 20+ lefthanders with right hemisphere speech lateralization, who we compared to control participants (both left- and righthanded) with left hemisphere dominance. Questions addressed are : (1) does language dominance have implications for foveal word recognition (split-fovea vs. bilateral fovea), (2) does language dominance have implications for eye movements in reading, (3) does atypical speech dominance have implications for the lateralization of other language and non-language functions ?

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Vendredi 22 Mars

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C
Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Arnaud DELORME
(CERCO, UMR5549, Toulouse)


"Neuroscientific Study of Mind Wandering"


During concentration tasks, spontaneous attention shifts occurs towards self-centered matters. Little is known about the brain oscillatory activity underlying these mental phenomena. We recorded 128-channels electroencephalographic activity from 12 subjects performing a breath-counting task. Subjects were instructed to press a button whenever, based on their introspective experience, they realized their attention had drifted away from the task. Theta (4-7 Hz) and delta (2-3.5 Hz) EEG activity increased during mind wandering whereas alpha (9-11 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) decreased. A passive auditory oddball protocol was presented to the subjects to test brain-evoked responses to perceptual stimuli during mind wandering. Mismatch negativity evoked at 100 ms after oddball stimuli onset decreased during mind wandering whereas the brain-evoked responses at 200 ms after stimuli onset increased. Spectral analyses and evoked related potential results suggest decreased alertness and sensory processing during mind wandering. To our knowledge, our experiment is one of the first neuro-imaging studies that relies purely on subjects’ introspective judgment, and shows that such judgment may be used to contrast different brain activity patterns.

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Vendredi 5 Avril

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C
Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Dominique MULLER

(Université Pierre Mendes France et Institut Universitaire de France)

 

Effets de la comparaison sociale sur l’attention, l’auto-évaluation et les comportements agressifs.

Les travaux qui seront présentés abordent la question de l’effet de la comparaison sociale sur l’attention, l’évaluation de soi et les comportements agressifs. Ainsi, nous aborderons dans un premier temps des travaux testant l’idée selon laquelle la comparaison à un autrui supérieur à soi (ce que l’on appelle une comparaison ascendante) induit une focalisation de l’attention. Nous verrons ensuite que ces effets peuvent être modulés par le caractère menaçant ou non de ces comparaisons ascendantes. Nous présenterons par ailleurs des travaux démontrant que le fait d’approcher (vs éviter) des cibles de comparaison permet un effet positif de ces comparaisons sur l’évaluation de soi. Enfin, nous présenterons des travaux récents s’intéressant à l’effet de la comparaison sociale sur les comportements agressifs.

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Vendredi 5 avril 2013
16h

(Salle des Voûtes Fédération de Recherche 3 C (Comportement, Cerveau, Cognition)

3 place Victor Hugo, Marseille)

(Labex BLRI)

 

Christian FULLGRABE
(MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Nottingham, UK)

 

Speech perception across the adult lifespan with clinically normal hearing.

 

Subjective reports suggest that older listeners experience increased listening difficulties in noisy environments, and experimental investigations seem to confirm this age-dependent deficit. However, older persons are generally unaware of their peripheral hearing status (i.e., the presence of a hearing loss) and most published studies used lax audiometric inclusion criteria. Hence, lower speech intelligibility could, at least partially, be explained by a reduction in audibility with age. Also, most aging studies limited their age comparison to groups of "young" (e.g. ≤ 30 years) and "older" listeners (e.g. ≥ 60 years), making it impossible to pinpoint the onset of the putative age effect.

This talk will present two cross-sectional investigations of central age effects on speech perception, using participants with clinically normal hearing. Performance on supra-threshold temporal-processing and a battery of cognitive tasks (including tests of processing speed, working memory and attention) was assessed, and compared with speech identification in quiet and in different (steady and fluctuating) background noises. To determine when during adulthood a decline with age in these abilities first becomes apparent, participants were sampled continuously from the entire adult age range (18-91 years).

Despite a large individual variability, the results show an age-dependent decline in speech identification, especially above 70 years. Sensitivity to temporal information and cognitive performance deteriorated as early as middle age, and both correlated with speech-in-noise perception.

In conclusion, even when peripheral hearing sensitivity is clinically normal, the identification of speech in noise declines with age, and this deficit co-occurs with changes in retro-cochlear auditory processing and cognitive function.

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Vendredi 12 avril 2013
16h

(Salle de conférences B011, bât. B

5 avenue Pasteur, Aix-en-Provence LPL)

 

Jérémy DANNA
(BLRI)

Sonifying handwriting movements for the diagnosis and the rehabilitation of movement disorders.

 Except for the slight scratching of the pen, handwriting is a silent activity. Transforming it into an audible activity might sound curious. However, because audition is particularly appropriate for the perception of fine temporal and dynamical differences, using sounds to gain information about handwriting movements seems judicious. We use the sonification that consists in adding synthetic sounds to silent movements in order to provide support for information processing activities. The idea is to associate a melodious sound, which flows, to a fluent handwriting, and a dissonant sound, which squeaks, to a jerky handwriting. By sonifying the relevant variables of handwriting in dysgraphic children or in Parkinsonian patients, it could be possible to detect their handwritings troubles ’by ear’ only. My talk will be organized in two parts. First, I will expose an experiment showing that adding relevant auditory information is sufficient for discriminating the handwriting of dysgraphic children and the skilled handwriting of proficient children ’by ear’ only. I will also present an experiment in progress in which real-time auditory feedback are supplied to help dysgraphic children to improve their handwriting movements. Secondly, I will present the BLRI project that consists in using computerized analysis and sonification of handwriting movements for the early diagnosis of Parkinson Disease.

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Caralyn KEMP

(BLRI)

Grunt yak wahoo : baboon speak.


Primates vocalise to maintain contact with conspecifics, warn of predators, alert group members to food and to advertise territory, sexual availability and size, but we know surprisingly little about how and why these calls are produced. Can they be varied and is this context dependent ? Are these calls vocal responses to emotional states or can they be produced voluntarily ? How does the production of these calls compare to human speech ? Studying these questions not only helps us to understand what our closest relatives are saying, but also helps us to understand the evolution of our own speech. As part of a larger study considering these questions, I am examining the vocalisations of a captive group of Guinea baboons at the Primate Cognition and Behavior Platform in Rousset. The main goal of this aspect of the project is to produce a large-scale database in order to 1) characterise the vocal repertoire of this baboon species, 2) determine the acoustic features of the vocalisations, and 3) test the descriptive adequacy of existing categories. Determining the precise repertoire of baboon vocalisations will allow us to specify the ’acoustic space’ that the vocal track of baboons can produce and how this compares to human vowel production. Taking into consideration the social context in which these vocalisations are produced and how specific situations alter vocal production, we aim to determine whether the baboons are capable of producing these calls voluntarily.

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Vendredi 3 Mai

(11h-12h)

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C
Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Gregory ZELINSKY
(Stony Brook University, NY, USA)

Categorical search : A (selective) review of behavioral and computational work

Categorical search, the task of finding and recognizing categorically-defined targets (e.g., cups, trash, bins, etc.) has been a neglected research topic, with the majority of studies in the search literature using instead picture previews of a target or other paradigms providing searchers with precise knowledge of a target’s exact appearance. Behavioral and computational work from my laboratory on the topic of how eye movements are directed during categorical search will be reviewed. Behaviorally, we show that eye movements can be guided to categorically-defined targets, a possibility that had been debated. We also show that this categorical guidance is proportional to the availability of target-defining information, is sensitive to subtle categorical similarity relationships, and is modulated by factors known to affect categorization, such as the hierarchical level used to specify a categorical target. Computationally, we borrow features and techniques from computer vision to model the eye movements made during categorical search. We show that this model can predict several core aspects of search behavior, including set size effects and the percentages of initial eye movements to a target (a conservative measure of search guidance). Recent work will also be discussed that uses SVM-based classifiers to decode the target category that a person is searching for from the nontarget objects that they preferentially fixate on target-absent trials ?reading a searcher ?s mind by analyzing their fixations.
We conclude that categorical search is very similar to target-specific search, with the critical difference being that the visual features discriminating a target category from nontargets must be learned and retrieved from long-term memory before being used to guide movements of attention and gaze.

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Vendredi 17 Mai

11h-12h

<<<<ATTENTION>>>>>

(Salle LSH 505, Espace Yves Mathieu

Centre St Charles Marseille)

Marte OTTEN

(University of Amsterdam)

From insults to humiliation :

The electrophysiology of intense personal negative experience

Social interaction with other people is not always positive. In this talk we will present two studies that explore the electrophysiological consequences of two types of intense personal negative experiences. Firstly, we will present data showing that humiliation is a particularly intense emotional experience, more so than other approach related emotions happiness and anger. We observed that the late positive potential (LPP), indicating (negative) affect, and event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the alpha-frequency range, indicating overall intensity of cortical activation, were both markedly increased when participants read and thought about scenarios evoking humiliation. In a second study, we show that personal insults are perceived differently when these insults are presented in the presence of a laughing crowd. Without the presence of a laughing audience, insults, compared to compliments, evoke an increased N400. When a laughing crowd is present, insults evoke a larger LPP. This indicates that the presence of laughing onlookers changes an insult from an unexpected event to an event that carries (negative) emotional meaning. Our results show that intense negative personal experiences in fact bear these extreme characteristics compared to other approach related emotions, and how social context can amplify perceived negativity.

& Kai Jonas

*********

Vendredi 24 Mai

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Cristina BAUS

(Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelone)

Joint Production : the effect of predicting other’s upcoming words on speech production

When having a conversation, predicting our interlocutor’s verbal actions and integrating them in our own action plan is key, as it is for the success of any joint activity.
I will present an electrophysiological investigation on the involvement of the production system in predicting other’s verbal actions. Specifically, whether lexical processes that occur when we name objects can also be observed during joint action when our partner has to naming those objects. Then I will present some evidence on the consequences that being engaged in a joint verbal activity exert on the speaker’s posterior word retrieval.

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Vendredi 31 Mai

(11h-12h)

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Laurent MADELAIN

(URECA, Univ. Lille III)

Saccade and reinforcement : some experimental data.

Our movements are affected by the ever-changing environment and we
constantly need to adjust motor commands to take these changes into
account. I will present some experimental data indicating that several
dimensions of saccadic eye movements may be modified by reinforcement in
humans. In particular I will focus on saccadic reaction times as well as
on changes in saccade amplitudes.

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Vendredi 7 Juin

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Denis MARESCHAL

(Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development School of Psychology, Birkbeck College, University of London)


The integration of sensory cues across development

(Le dévelopment de l’intégration sensorielle chez l’enfant)

We live in a multi-sensory world in which cues related to an event may sometimes be redundant but at other times be in conflict. The same is can be said of sensory cues within a single modality. Children must learn not just to combine these cue but also to establish if the cues are reliable,or if some must be ignored. In this talk, I will discuss 2 examples of cue integration : visual cues in the perception of depth, and visual-proprioceptive cues in spatial localisation. In both case, optimal cue integration is not found until around 10 years of age. I will discuss possible reasons for this phenomenon.

Nardini, M., Begus, K., & Mareschal, D. (in press). Multisensory uncertainty reduction for hand localization in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance.

M Nardini, R Bedford, D Mareschal (2010). Fusion of visual cues is not mandatory in children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U. S. A. 107(39), 17041-17046

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Vendredi 7 juin 2013

16h-17h et plus....

Salle des Voûtes, Fédération de Recherche 3 C (Comportement, Cerveau, Cognition)

3 place Victor Hugo, Marseille

(Labex BLRI)

Robert HARTSUIKER
(Ghent University)

 

Is lexical selection by competition ?

 

Résumé : There are several contrasting views on the mechanisms of lexical selection in language production. On one view, words compete with each other for selection, so that the time to select one word depends on the activation of competitors. This competitive view is often thought to be supported by semantic interference in picture-word tasks (name the picture, ignore the distractor word). But on another view, the time to select a word depends only on the activation of the highest activated lexical unit. This account is consistent with semantic facilitation in some versions of the picture-word task, but requires an additional mechanism to account for semantic interference effects. Our work of the last few years has tested whether this mechanism is one of self-monitoring and covert error repair. On this view, the distractor sometimes gets ahead of the picture name in production process. To prevent the inadvertent naming of the distractor, it therefore needs to be filtered out covertly, and the more difficult it is to detect and rule out the distractor, the more naming will be delayed. To test this account, we have conducted behavioral experiments and EEG experiments that manipulated parameters we suspect the self-monitoring system to be sensitive to, such as lexical status of the distractor, context (i.e., composition of list of stimuli), and even taboo status of the distractor word. Based on my review of this evidence I will argue that response exclusion by self-monitoring is a viable alternative to lexical selection by competition.

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Vendredi 14 Juin

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

James S. ADELMAN

(Warwick University, UK)

When (not how much) is WIRD like WORD ?

One contemporary focus of research on how people identify written or printed words is stimuli that partially match a target word. Models of visual word identification largely assume that the relevant phenomena should be explained by an online computation of the balance of matching and mismatching parts, with graded variation from perfectly matching to perfectly mismatching ; mutual inhibition between words selects the correct alternative. An alternative account --- implemented in my Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space model --- is that different types of mismatch are identified at differing rates, and the correct alternative is that with no mismatch. I present the model and its fits to previous identification and nonword-primed lexical decision data. I also consider the evidence for mutual inhibition between words. Finally, I present a new mega-study of nonword-primed lexical decision, and consider its implications for the model.

 


 

 

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<<<<ATTENTION>>>>>>

Mardi 18 Juin

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Yi-Yuan TANG

(Texas Tech University)

Short-term training improves attention, creativity and working memory : mechanism and application


Computerized cognitive training such as attention training or working memory training improves certain task performance through exercising the certain brain network. In general, the transfer effects only limit to the related cognitive tasks. Is there a new way to change the brain states and practice the more brain networks, thus improve diverse cognitive performance ? We propose a novel state training to test the effects on attention, creativity and working memory and demonstrate the underlying mechanism using behavioral, physiological and neuroimaging methods.

 

http://www.depts.ttu.edu/vpr/ttni/faculty-staff.php)

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Vendredi 21 Juin

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, FR3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Axel MECKLINGER
(Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Germany)

Never make the same joke twice : The strategic control of memory retrieval.

The cognitive processes underlying episodic memory are of considerable interest in memory psychology. Electrophysiological measures have revealed important insights in the neural basis of these processes. This talk will review recent event-related potential (ERP) correlates of two subprocesses of recognition memory : Familiarity and recollection. It will be shown that both forms of remembering can be dissociated by means of electrophysiological measures. The second part of the talk will focus on cognitive control processes which take place before or after retrieval has occurred and facilitate the recovery of task relevant information in multiple ways.

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Vendredi 6 Septembre 2013

11h-12h

(Salle des Voûtes, Féd3C

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

 

Britta BIEDERMANN

Grammatical processing in impaired and unimpaired language production : a cross-linguistic study.

This study looks at the effect of frequency dominance on plural processing in English and German. Plural-dominant plural forms (e.g. ‘ears’, ‘mice’) are higher in frequency compared to their singular forms (‘ear’, ‘mouse’). In turn, singular-dominant plural forms (e.g. ‘clocks’) are lower in frequency compared to their singular forms. While plural dominance effects have been found in input tasks (such as lexical decision) in healthy speakers, output tasks such as picture naming have been neglected to date as a tool of investigation. We therefore explored the effect of plural dominance by comparing picture naming performance of English and German brain-impaired speakers, using accuracy and error type as critical measures. Pictures were matched for frequency, name agreement, and visual complexity.
Using a series single case design, we investigated three English-speaking participants with aphasia with a main impairment at either the mapping of semantic information onto the word form level, or at the word form level itself. All patients showed a better naming performance for singular-dominant singulars compared to their plurals, while the plural-dominant condition did not show a significant difference between singular and plural performance. As we only investigated regular s-plurals in English, we expanded the question about the effect of dominance to a language with a more complex regular plural morphology : German. A further series single case study was carried out : four German aphasic speakers with a deficit at the word form level were given singular-dominant and plural-dominant pictures for spoken picture naming, including two regular plural types (–s and N1). All participants showed a significant difference for the singular –dominant group (singulars > plural) and no difference for the plural-dominant group, confirming the pattern found for the English-speaking aphasic patients.
In a control experiment, 40 healthy, native English speakers named the same sets of pictures corresponding to plural-dominant and singular-dominant nouns. Naming latencies confirmed the pattern found for both groups of aphasic speakers.
Results indicate a difference in morphological processing of regular plurals, depending on the status ‘dominance’, suggesting a dual-route mechanism that processes the –s plural together with its stem as full form, or in a rule-based manner.
If time permits, I will present work in progress : We are currently carrying out German and Dutch picture naming control experiments in healthy speakers to expand the evidence for languages with a more complex plural morphology than English.


Britta Biedermann1, Antje Lorenz2, Elisabeth Beyersmann3, Catherine Mason1, Franziska Machleb4, Niels Schiller5, and Lyndsey Nickels1
1ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Department for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
2Institute for Psychology, University of Münster, Germany
3Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Aix-Marseille Université, France
4Institute for Psycholinguistics, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Erfurt, Germany
5Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, The Netherlands

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 Vendredi 6 Septembre

16h-17h

(Salle des Voûtes, Fr3C,

Centre St Charles, Marseille)

Labex BLRI

Gary S. DELL

(University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)

What Freud got right about speech errors

Most people associate Sigmund Freud with the assertion that
speech errors reveal repressed thoughts, a claim that does not have a great deal of support. I will mention some other things that Freud said about slips, showing that these, in contrast to the repression notion, do fit well with some modern theories of language production. I will illustrate using the interactive two-step theory of lexical access during production, which we have used to understand aspects of aphasic speech error patterns.



 

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Thèses

*******************

Jasmin SADAT

Dear friends and colleagues,


On Friday, December 14th at 3pm I will defend my dissertation entitled :

The bilingual cost in speech production : studies of phonological and articulatory processes.

The defense will take place in Barcelona at the PRBB building in the Sala Xipre on the first floor.

 

If you would like to attend the defense you are kindly asked to provide your ID data by December 9th to facilitate the access procedure to the PRBB building. Please fill out this form : http://tinyurl.com/cteyrse.

 

After the defense there will be a "pica-pica", and for those who have more time we will go to a bar around the Vila Olímpica.

 

For those of you in Marseille, there will be a post-dissertation seminar on January 11th at 11am at the Pôle 3C (Faculté St.Charles) in the Salle de Voûtes, followed by a "pot".

All the best,
Jasmin

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Kim UITTENHOVE (LPC, Marseille)


Je soutiendrai ma thèse intitulée :

"Effets de difficulté séquentielle stratégique : Etudes en cognition numérique"
M. Patrick Lemaire (Aix Marseille Université), Directeur

le lundi 17 décembre 2012 à 10h15 dans l’Amphi des Sciences Naturelles (Faculté St Charles), Marseille.

Jury :

M. Pierre Barrouillet (Université de Genève), Rapporteur
Mme Laurence Taconnat (Université François Rabelais), Rapporteur
Mle Agnes Blaye (Aix Marseille Université), Examinateur
Mme Catherine Thevenot (Université de Genève), Examinateur

Vous êtes également tous chaleureusement conviés au pot qui suivra la soutenance.

Résumé :
Dans cette thèse, nous soutenons l’idée que les ressources cognitives disponibles pour l’exécution d’une stratégie dépendent non seulement de la personne et des exigences de la stratégie que nous allons exécuter, mais aussi des demandes propres à la stratégie qu’on vient d’exécuter. L’exécution d’une stratégie devrait alors être moins efficace lorsqu’elle suit une stratégie difficile (i.e., effets de difficulté séquentielle). Nous avons testé l’existence d’effets de difficulté séquentielle dans quatres expériences portant sur l’estimation calculatoire (i.e., estimer la solution de problèmes arithmétiques en arrondissant les opérandes). Nous avons observé une moindre efficacité d’exécution de la stratégie mixte sur des additions à deux chiffres (i.e., arrondir une opérande vers le bas et une opérande vers le haut) après avoir exécuté la stratégie d’arrondi supérieur, laquelle est la stratégie la plus difficile pour cette tâche. En outre, cet effet était davantage présent chez des personnes ayant une moindre capacité de mémoire de travail ainsi que chez des patients souffrant de la maladie d’Alzheimer. Ces résultats confirment l’existence d’effets de difficulté séquentielle stratégique. En outre, ils suggèrent que la capacité de mémoire de travail est impliquée.

 

**********

Mariel LECLERE

Bonjour à toutes et à tous,


J’ai le plaisir de vous inviter à la soutenance de ma thèse de doctorat réalisée sous la direction du Professeur Patrick Lemaire, intitulée :

Évolution de la capacité à sélectionner la meilleure stratégie au cours du vieillissement normal et pathologique : effet de la répétition stratégique

La soutenance aura lieu le mardi 18 décembre à 10H, à l’Université d’Aix-Marseille : site de Saint-Charles, dans la salle des expositions de l’Espace Fernand Pouillon (cf voir "*" ci-dessous)

devant un jury composé de

Madame Anne-Marie Ergis, Professeur à l’Université de Paris (Rapporteur)
Madame Catherine Thevenot, Maître de recherche à l’Université de Genève (Rapporteur)
Madame Sylvie Belleville, Professeur à l’Université de Montréal (Examinateur)
Madame Laurence Taconnat, Professeur à l’Université de Tour (Examinateur)
Monsieur Michel Fayol, Professeur à l’Université de Clermont-Ferrand (Examinateur)

La soutenance sera suivie d’un pot auquel vous êtes, bien entendu, toutes et tous convié(e)s.


* Pour s’y rendre : quand vous êtes face à l’Université, dirigez vous vers la bibliothèque universitaire, l’Espace Fernand Pouillon jouxte la BU et se trouve au rez-de-chaussée.
Si vous voulez plus d’informations cliquez sur le lien suivant : http://gsite.univ-provence.fr/gsite/document.php?pagendx=12006&project=scd

***************************


 

Claire ENEA-DRAPEAU (LPC Marseille)


Je soutiendrai ma thèse intitulée :

Stéréotype explicite et implicite des personnes porteuses de trisomie 21.
Relations entre typicalité du visage, jugement sur l’intelligence et niveau
cognitif.


le jeudi 20 décembre à 9h30 dans la salle des voutes du Pôle 3C (St Charles)

Jury :
Yannick Courbois, Professeur, Université Lille 3, rapporteur
Jean-Claude Croizet, Professeur, Université de Poitiers, rapporteur
Bernadette Céleste, Directrice de l ?INS HEA, examinatrice
Juliette Richetin, Maître de Conférences, Université Milan-Bicocca (Italie),
examinatrice
Michèle Carlier, Professeure émérite, Aix-Marseille Université, directrice
Pascal Huguet, Directeur de recherche au CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université,
codirecteur

Résumé : La trisomie 21 (t21) est l’anomalie génétique la plus fréquente à l’origine d’une déficience intellectuelle. Bien que la recherche concernant le stéréotype social de la t21 soit limitée, les personnes porteuses de t21, et particulièrement les enfants, semblent être associées à des traits de personnalité tels que « affectueux » et « heureux », les caractéristiques positives l’emportant sur les négatives comme « retardé ». Cependant, ce stéréotype positif coexiste avec des attitudes ambivalentes notamment à propos de l’intégration scolaire de ces enfants. L’objectif principal de cette thèse est d’étudier ce stéréotype au niveau implicite ainsi que l’impact des caractéristiques faciales sur le stéréotype au niveau explicite et implicite. Nos résultats confirment d’une part, un stéréotype social positif explicite dans des échantillons d’étudiants, d’adultes non étudiant et de professionnels du handicap intellectuel. Les visages d’enfants présentant plus de traits faciaux associés à la t21 sont associés à un stéréotype moins positif que ceux en présentant moins. D’autre part, nous mettons en évidence un stéréotype négatif au niveau implicite, même chez les professionnels du handicap. Nous étudions l’influence des variables individuelles sexe, familiarité avec la t21 et théories implicites de l’intelligence sur le stéréotype explicite et implicite. Puis, nous montrons une relation négative entre la typicalité des visages et le jugement sur l’intelligence alors que nous n’observons pas de relation significative entre la typicalité des visages et le niveau cognitif. Nous discutons l’implication de ces résultats sur l’étude du stéréotype et sur les personnes stigmatisées.

Mots clés : trisomie 21, stéréotype, niveau explicite, niveau implicite, caractéristiques faciales, niveau cognitif

Explicit and implicit stereotyping of trisomy 21.
Relationships between typicality of faces, judgment of intelligence and cognitive level.

Abstract : Trisomy 21 (t21) or Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Although research on the social stereotype toward t21 is very limited, it seems that persons with t21 are typically viewed as “affectionate” and “happy” ; with positive personality traits prevailing over the negative ones (e.g., “mentally retarded”). However, this positive stereotype coexists with ambivalent attitudes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the stereotype at the implicit level and the impact of t21 facial features on the stereotype of t21 at the both explicit and implicit levels. Our results confirm, on one hand, a positive social stereotype explicit in samples of young adult students, non-student adults and professional caregivers working with intellectually disabled persons. The positive bias typically found in explicit judgments of children with t21 is smaller for those whose facial features are highly characteristic of this disorder, compared to their counterparts with less distinctive features and to typically developing children. On the other hand, we also show that this bias can coexist with negative evaluations at the implicit level, even among professional caregivers but to a lesser extent. We study the influence of individual variables sex, familiarity with the t21 and implicit theories of intelligence on explicit and implicit stereotypes. Finally, we show a negative relationship between t21 typicality of faces and the judgment of the intelligence as we do not observe a significant relationship between typicality and the cognitive level. We discuss the implications of these results.

Key-words : stereotyping, implicit level, Down syndrome, trisomy 21, facial features, cognitive level

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Marina YAO-N’DRE

 

Je soutiendrai ma thèse intitulée : "Etude des aspects visuels et oculomoteurs de la lecture en vision centrale et périphérique"

le mercredi 13 mars 2013 à 14h00

Salle des voûtes
Centre Saint Charles
3, Place Victor Hugo
13331 Marseille Cedex 03

Composition du jury :
Mme Zoï Kapoula, APHP, Paris, France - Rapporteur
Mr Marc Brysbaert, Université de Gand, Belgique - Rapporteur
Mme Muriel Boucart, Université de Lille 2, France - Examinateur
Mr Franck Vidal, Aix-Marseille Université, France - Examinateur
Mme Anna Montagnini, Aix-Marseille Université, France - Examinateur
Mme Françoise Vitu-Thibuault, Aix-Marseille Université, France - Directrice
Mr Eric Castet, Aix-Marseille Université, France - Directeur


Résumé : La lecture est un vaste domaine d’étude, qui s’intéresse entre autres, aux facteurs déterminant la visibilité de lettres et les mouvements oculaires. Néanmoins, l’approche de ces mécanismes reste différente selon qu’elle concerne la vision centrale ou périphérique. Cette thèse propose, au contraire, une approche conjointe dans le but (1) de mettre en évidence les effets des facteurs visuels limitant la reconnaissance de mots, (2) de mieux comprendre le comportement oculomoteur lors de la lecture en vision centrale et (3) d’étudier le rôle des facteurs oculomoteurs spécifiques à la lecture en vision périphérique. Trois expériences ont été menées. La première était axée sur l’étude des facteurs visuels. Elle a mis en évidence que l’effet OVP est moins important pour des mots présentés dans le champ visuel inférieur. Ce résultat, pouvant s’expliquer par la géométrie de l’acuité visuelle et de l’encombrement, suggère que la lecture en périphérie est limitée par les mêmes facteurs qu’en vision centrale. La deuxième étude s’intéressait à l’influence de la stabilité de fixation sur la lecture de phrases en présence d’un scotome artificiel. Elle a révélé que la vitesse de lecture pouvait être améliorée en ajoutant une stimulation fovéale stable au sein du scotome. En revanche, cette stimulation ne permettait pas d’améliorer la stabilité du regard durant la fixation, ce qui suggère qu’elle agirait plutôt sur la programmation des saccades. Enfin, la troisième expérience réexaminait l’effet de la taille des lettres sur le comportement oculomoteur en vision centrale. Elle a révélé que les mouvements oculaires variaient selon la taille des lettres, et ce différemment selon la position du regard par rapport au centre des mots. Ce résultat, nouveau, est vraisemblablement attribuable à l’effet de processus visuomoteurs précoces. Il questionne les hypothèses classiques du guidage oculomoteur lors de la lecture en vision centrale, et soulève aussi des questions méthodologiques pour l’étude de l’empan visuel et de la lecture en vision périphérique. En conclusion, l’étude conjointe de la lecture en vision centrale et périphérique est prometteuse, non seulement d’un point de vue fondamental, mais aussi pour l’aide aux patients atteints de déficiences visuelles telles que la DMLA.


Mots clés : lecture, basse vision, scotome artificiel, mouvements oculaires, effet OVP

Abstract : Reading is a large research field, which investigates for a great part the variables influencing letter visibility and eye movements. However, its study in central and peripheral vision has been conducted in parallel and with different approaches. Our work relied, on the contrary, on a joint approach in order (1) to uncover the visual factors limiting word recognition, (2) to better determine how the eyes move during reading in central vision, and (3) to study the role of oculomotor factors that might affect reading in peripheral vision. Three experiments were conducted.The first study focused on the role of visual factors in word identification. It showed that the OVP effect is reduced for words displayed in the lower visual field. This result, which can be explained by the geometry of visual acuity and visual crowding, suggests that reading in peripheral vision is limited by the same visual factors as reading in central vision.The second study investigated the influence of fixation stability on sentence reading using an artificial scotoma. It revealed that reading speed could be improved when adding a stable foveal stimulation within the scotoma. However it failed to improve the stability of the eyes during a fixation, which suggests that this stimulation may instead influence saccade programming.The third experiment re-examined the possible influence of character size on eye movements in central vision. It revealed that eye movements varied depending on letter size, and differently as a function of the location of the eye relative to the center of words. This novel finding was very likely the effect of early visuomotor processes. While this argues against the classical account of eye guidance in reading in central vision, it also raises crucial methodological questions for the study of the visual span and reading in peripheral vision. In conclusion, the joint study of reading in central and peripheral vision is promising, not only at a fundamental level, but also for a better understanding of retinal visual deficits, such as AMD.
Keywords : reading, low vision, artificial scotoma, eye movements, OVP effect



Vous êtes, bien entendu, conviés au pot qui suivra.

 

Marina Yao-N’Dré

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Joanna LUCENET


Je soutiendrai ma thèse intitulée : « Le rôle de la verbalisation dans le développement de la gestion des buts : une approche vie entière »

le lundi 17 Juin à 9h
Salle des voûtes
Centre Saint Charles
3, Place Victor Hugo
13331 Marseille

Composition du jury :
Valérie Camos, Professeur, Université de Fribourg, Suisse - Rapporteur
Laurence Taconnat, Professeur, CeRCA-CNRS, Université de Tours - Rapporteur
Cédric Bouquet, Professeur, CeRCA-CNRS, Université de Poitiers - Examinateur
Patrick Lemaire, Professeur, LPC-CNRS, Université d’Aix-Marseille - Examinateur
Virginie Postal, Maître de conférences, Université de Bordeaux - Examinateur
Agnès Blaye, Professeur, LPC-CNRS, Université d’Aix-Marseille - Directrice

Résumé  : De récents travaux suggèrent que la composante de gestion des buts, définie comme la capacité à se représenter les buts et à les maintenir activement en mémoire de travail, jouerait un rôle central dans l’efficience du contrôle exécutif. Toutefois, la connaissance que l’on a des processus impliqués dans cette composante reste limitée. Ce travail de thèse vise à étudier l’évolution de cette composante au cours de différents âges de la vie. Nous avons également testé l’influence de verbalisations imposées sur ce développement. Quatre études expérimentales ont été conduites dans cette perspective et ont révélé 1) que l’amélioration de la capacité à gérer les buts lors de la période préscolaire s’accompagnait d’une évolution qualitative du mode de contrôle engagé ; 2) que l’évolution des performances en flexibilité de l’enfance au grand âge était spécifiquement liée au développement de la gestion des buts ; et 3) que les verbalisations imposées modulaient le développement de la gestion des buts en produisant un bénéfice plus marqué chez les enfants et les adultes âgés. Les résultats conjoints de ces études mettent en évidence que l’engagement d’un contrôle anticipé, proactif, lors de tâches d’alternance semble favorisé par l’emploi spontané de stratégies visant à orienter l’attention vers le but de la tâche, à la fois pour récupérer précocement la représentation du but, et pour maintenir activement cette représentation en mémoire de travail lors des étapes de traitement de la tâche. L’effet bénéfique de verbalisations imposées chez les enfants et les adultes âgés suggère que ces populations présentent des difficultés à gérer les buts lorsqu’ils doivent effectuer la tâche en silence. Ces difficultés pourraient provenir d’une immaturité ou d’un déficit de leur langage interne, ou du fait qu’ils ne comprennent pas l’importance de s’engager dans une préparation anticipée de la tâche, ou encore qu’ils ne prennent pas conscience que le recours au langage peut être bénéfique pour effectuer la tâche.

Mots clés : gestion des buts, contrôle exécutif, verbalisation, développement cognitif, flexibilité cognitive

Abstract : Recent studies suggest that goal-setting, defined as the ability to represent and maintain task goals in working memory, play a crucial role in executive control. However, the processes underlying this component need further investigations. The current work aims to study how this component develops across different age groups. It also examines whether required verbalizations have an impact on this development. To this end, four experimental studies were conducted, and revealed 1) that improvement in goal-setting ability during preschool years was associated with qualitative changes in the mode of control used ; 2) that flexibility abilities from childhood to old age was specifically linked to the development of goal-setting component ; and 3) that requested verbalizations influenced the development of goal-setting ability by producing benefits in children and older adults. Altogether, these findings reveal that the use of proactive control in task-switching could be promoted by the spontaneous utilization of strategies which enable attention reorientation toward task goals to retrieve goal representation and to maintain it in working memory during the processing steps of the task. The beneficial effect of requested verbalizations in children and older adults suggests that these age groups encounter goal-setting difficulties when asked to perform the task in silence. Such difficulties may stem from immaturity or deficits in inner speech, from the fact that these age groups do not understand the necessity to engage in an advance preparation of the task, or from their lack of awareness of the benefits induced by verbal strategies.

Keywords  : goal setting, executive control, verbal labeling, cognitive development, cognitive flexibility

La soutenance sera suivie d’un pot auquel vous êtes toutes et tous chaleureusement convié(e)s.

Joanna Lucenet

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François MALTESE

Equipe 1 LPC : Cognition et contexte social.

J’ai le grand plaisir de vous annoncer la date de la soutenance de ma thèse réalisée sous la codirection de Michèle Carlier et Pascal Huguet.

Jeudi 19 septembre 2013

à 9h30 Salle des voûtes du LPC/FR3C.

 

 

Effets d’une situation de comparaison sociale dans les différences liées au sexe en rotation mentale : Une étude avec des jumeaux dizygotes.

 

 

Membres du jury :
Mme Delphine Martinot, Professeur des universités, Université Clermont-Ferrand 2, Rapporteuse du jury

M. Robert Vlietinck, Professeur des universités, Médecine générale,Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgique, Rapporteur du jury

Mme Michèle Carlier, Professeur émérite Université d’Aix-Marseille, Directeur de thèse

M.. Pascal Huguet, Directeur de recherche CNRS/LPC-Université d’Aix-Marseille, Codirecteur de thèse

 

 

Résumé  : Le test de rotation mentale (TRM) est robuste pour faire émerger une grande différence de sexe en faveur des hommes. Il existe un stéréotype, communément admis, de moins bonnes performances des femmes en aptitude spatiale. Deux théories explicatives cohabitent. La première, biologique, est liée à une masculinisation du cerveau des garçons sous l’action des androgènes durant la vie foetale. Dans cette hypothèse, et en raison d’un transfert d’hormones supposé durant la vie intra-utérine, les femmes qui ont un cojumeau doivent avoir des performances meilleures que celles ayant une cojumelle (Vuoksimaa et al., 2010). L’autre hypothèse, que nous défendons, suppose que les différences de sexe au TRM peuvent être socialement construites ou activées par des éléments du Contexte évaluatif et ceci quel que soient les compétences des personnes. Nous avons, pour la première fois dans une étude gémellaire, confronté ces deux hypothèses. Des paires de jumeaux jeunes adultes dizygotes de même sexe (DZMS), 23 paires d’hommes et 34 paires de femmes, et de sexe différent (DZSD), 62 paires, ont passé un TRM informatisé dans deux conditions expérimentales où l’exactitude des réponses et les temps de réponse sont enregistrés. Dans une condition, les consignes du test rendent la situation de comparaison au cojumeau possible (CSP) : « vous et votre jumeau ferez le même test aujourd’hui », dans l’autre condition (CSI) la comparaison est rendue improbable : « vous et votre jumeau ferez des tâches différentes ». Nos résultats n’accréditent pas la théorie biologique et sont en faveur d’une explication en termes d’interférence du stéréotype.


Mots clés : Rotation Mentale, Différence de Sexe, Jumeaux, Menace du stéréotype, Transfert foetal d’hormones.

P.S. Comme il est d’heureuse coutume, un pot clôturera ma soutenance auquel vous êtes toutes et tous cordialement et amicalement invités !!!
 Pourriez-vous s’il vous plait, pour des raisons d’organisation, me confirmer par mèl votre présence à la soutenance et/ou au pot ? Par avance, MERCI.

francois-maltese@orange.fr