Contact-dependent cell communications drive morphological invariance during ascidian embryogenesis


  • Guignard Léo
  • Fiuza Ulla-Maj
  • Leggio Bruno
  • Faure Emmanuel
  • Laussu Julien
  • Hufnagel Lars
  • Malandain Grégoire
  • Godin Christophe
  • Lemaire Patrick

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Canalization of developmental processes ensures the reproducibility and robustness of embryogenesis within each species. In its extreme form, found in ascidians, early embryonic cell lineages are invariant between embryos within and between species, despite rapid genomic divergence. To resolve this paradox, we used live light-sheet imaging to quantify individual cell behaviors in digitalized embryos and explore the forces that canalize their development. This quantitative approach revealed that individual cell geometries and cell contacts are strongly constrained, and that these constraints are tightly linked to the control of fate specification by local cell inductions. While in vertebrates ligand concentration usually controls cell inductions, we found that this role is fulfilled in ascidians by the area of contacts between signalingand responding cells. We propose that the duality between geometric and genetic control of inductions contributes to the counterintuitive inverse correlation between geometric and genetic variability during embryogenesis.

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