This study investigates concept formation and cross-modal integration in baboons. Response times were recorded in a categorical task involving discrimination between human and baboon vocalizations. We show that a brief presentation of human or baboon prime pictures conceptually related to the target sound shortened response speed of one baboon. Cross-modal priming effects were replicated with degraded pictures, and were also found in a sample of humans. Cross-modal priming demonstrates that this baboon had formed amodal abstract concepts of the human and baboon categories. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.