Is there lemma-based language control? The influence of language practice and language-specific item practice on asymmetrical switch costs

authors

  • Declerck Mathieu
  • Philipp Andrea M.

keywords

  • Bilingualism
  • Language control
  • Lemmas
  • Asymmetrical switch costs
  • Language switching

document type

ART

abstract

Several models have proposed that language control occurs between language representations, such as language tags, and between lemmas. Yet, most research has solely focused on language-control processes between language representations. In the present study, we investigated whether language control can also occur between lemmas by allowing bilinguals to practice a language or language-specific items prior to a language-switching task, and thus change the relative activation of the language representations and/or lemmas. By changing the activation levels, relatively more language control should occur for this language representation and/or lemma relative to their translation-equivalent due to the reactive nature of language control. The results showed that this was all the more so when language-specific items were practiced than when merely a language was practiced. Hence, the current study provides evidence that language control is not restricted to language representations, but could also occur between lemmas.

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