The authors trained 6 baboons (Papio papio) to make 1 of 2 report responses to 16-icon same arrays versus 16-icon different arrays. In the same arrays, the icons were all the same as one another, whereas in the different arrays the icons were all different from one another. In Experiment 1. the baboons discriminated the same arrays from the different arrays, and they transferred their discriminative responding to arrays of novel icons. In Experiments 2 and 3, the baboons exhibited strong sensitivity to the degree of display variability when they were shown mixed arrays that comprised some same and some different items. The information theoretic measure ``entropy'' systematically described these results and outperformed several rival metrics. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, the baboons' responses to displays that contained jittered and blurred icons suggested that their same-different conceptual behavior was not based on the spatial orderliness of the visual arrays.