Parallel Orthographic Processing and Reading

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An ERC project

The project centers on a new computational model, the POP-R model, that implements two original, and apparently contradictory, hypotheses with respect to the processing of orthographic information spanning several words during silent reading for meaning: 1) orthographic information spanning several words is processed in parallel and integrated within a single pool of location-invariant orthographic representations; 2) readers process multiple word identities in parallel and keep track of the positions of these words by associating word identities with spatiotopic locations in short-term memory. The apparent contradiction is solved in POP-R by the triangular connectivity between gaze-centered letter detectors, spatiotopic word identities, and location-invariant orthographic representations. Evidence in favor of the first hypothesis has been obtained with a novel Flanking Letters Lexical Decision task. The second hypothesis predicted the existence of a sentence superiority effect in a novel Rapid Parallel Visual Presentation paradigm, for which we have preliminary evidence. Other key predictions of the POP-R model will be tested in behavioral experiments using these new techniques, and EEG and MEG recordings will be used to specify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the neural processes underlying orthographic pooling and parallel word identification. Experiments with primary school children will plot the developmental trajectory of these processes, and sentence reading experiments measuring eye-movements and ERPs will be used to further test the model. The project incorporates both theoretical and methodological innovation within a novel perspective on reading that places orthographic processing at the very heart of the reading network. This new perspective is expected to facilitate the integration of knowledge concerning low-level visual processing and eye-movement control with higher-level semantic and syntactic processing during silent reading for meaning.

For more information, see the institutional site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/742141/fr or download the scientific project (link).

 

 

Publications

 

As of June 2022, 51 scientific full-articles were published refering to the ERC 742141 project. See the Aix-Marseille repository for another view on articles ( HAL-AMU ).

 

References

2017 - June 2022

Beyersmann, E., Grainger, J., & Castles, A. (2019). Embedded stems as a bootstrapping mechanism for morphological parsing during reading development. In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY (Vol. 182, pp. 196–210). ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2019.01.010

Beyersmann, E., Grainger, J., & Taft, M. (2020). Evidence for embedded word length effects in complex nonwords. In LANGUAGE COGNITION AND NEUROSCIENCE (Vol. 35, Issue 2, pp. 235–245). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2019.1659989

Beyersmann, E., Montani, V., Ziegler, J. C., Grainger, J., & Stoianov, I. P. (2021). The dynamics of reading complex words: Evidence from steady-state visual evoked potentials. In SCIENTIFIC REPORTS (Vol. 11, Issue 1). NATURE PORTFOLIO. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95292-0

Beyersmann, E., Mousikou, P., Javourey-Drevet, L., Schroeder, S., Ziegler, J. C., & Grainger, J. (2020). Morphological Processing across Modalities and Languages. In SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING (Vol. 24, Issue 6, pp. 500–519). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2020.1730847

Beyersmann, E., Mousikou, P., Schroeder, S., Javourey-Drevet, L., Ziegler, J. C., & Grainger, J. (2021). The dynamics of morphological processing in developing readers: A cross-linguistic masked priming study. In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY (Vol. 208). ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105140

Cauchi, C., Lete, B., & Grainger, J. (2020). Orthographic and phonological contributions to flanker effects. In ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS (Vol. 82, Issue 7, pp. 3571–3580). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02023-0

Declerck, M. (2020). What about proactive language control? In PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW (Vol. 27, Issue 1, pp. 24–35). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-019-01654-1

Declerck, M., Ivanova, I., Grainger, J., & Dunabeitia, J. A. (2020). Are similar control processes implemented during single and dual language production? Evidence from switching between speech registers and languages. In BILINGUALISM-LANGUAGE AND COGNITION (Vol. 23, Issue 3, pp. 694–701). CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728919000695

Declerck, M., Wen, Y., Snell, J., Meade, G., & Grainger, J. (2020). Unified syntax in the bilingual mind. In PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW (Vol. 27, Issue 1, pp. 149–154). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-019-01666-x

Di Liberto, G. M., Nie, J., Yeaton, J., Khalighinejad, B., Shamma, S. A., & Mesgarani, N. (2021). Neural representation of linguistic feature hierarchy reflects second-language proficiency. In NEUROIMAGE (Vol. 227). ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117586

Dufour, S., & Grainger, J. (2020). The influence of word frequency on the transposed-phoneme priming effect. In ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS (Vol. 82, Issue 6, pp. 2785–2792). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02060-9

Dufour, S., & Grainger, J. (2022). When You Hear /Bakset/ Do You Think /Basket/? Evidence for Transposed-Phoneme Effect With Multisyllabic Words. In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION (Vol. 48, Issue 1, pp. 98–107). AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000978

Dufour, S., Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2021). Do you want /?oloka/ on a /bistLATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN Ok/? On the scope of transposed-phoneme effects with non-adjacent phonemes. In PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW(Vol. 28, Issue 5, pp. 1668–1678). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01926-9

Dufour, S., Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2022). Investigating the locus of transposed-phoneme effects using cross-modal priming. In ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA (Vol. 226). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103578

Fernandez-Lopez, M., Mirault, J., Grainger, J., & Perea, M. (2021). How Resilient Is Reading to Letter Rotations? A Parafoveal Preview Investigation. In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION (Vol. 47, Issue 12, pp. 2029–2042). AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000999

Grainger, J., & Beyersmann, E. (2021). Effects of Lexicality and Pseudo-Morphological Complexity on Embedded Word Priming. In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION (Vol. 47, Issue 3, pp. 518–531). AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000878

Grainger, J., Snell, J., & Beyersmann, E. (2021). Morphological processing in the flankers task. In LANGUAGE COGNITION AND NEUROSCIENCE (Vol. 36, Issue 3, pp. 288–295). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2020.1810292

Javourey-Drevet, L., Dufau, S., Francois, T., Gala, N., Ginestie, J., & Ziegler, J. C. (2022). Simplification of literary and scientific texts to improve reading fluency and comprehension in beginning readers of French. In APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS (Vol. 43, Issue 2, pp. 485–512). CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. https://doi.org/10.1017/S014271642100062X

Kerr, E., Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2021). On non-adjacent letter repetition and orthographic processing: Lexical decisions to nonwords created by repeating or inserting letters in words. In PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW(Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 596–609). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-020-01837-1

Ktori, M., Bertrand, D., & Grainger, J. (2019). What’s special about orthographic processing? Further evidence from transposition effects in same-different matching. In QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY(Vol. 72, Issue 7, pp. 1780–1789). SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021818811448

Magro, L. O., Mirault, J., Grainger, J., & Majerus, S. (n.d.). Sequential versus simultaneous presentation of memoranda in verbal working memory: (How) does it matter? In MEMORY & COGNITION. SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-022-01284-4

Massol, S., & Grainger, J. (2021). The sentence superiority effect in young readers. In DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE(Vol. 24, Issue 2). WILEY. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.13033

Massol, S., Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2021). The contribution of semantics to the sentence superiority effect. In SCIENTIFIC REPORTS (Vol. 11, Issue 1). NATURE PORTFOLIO. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99565-6

Meade, G., Declerck, M., Holcomb, P. J., & Grainger, J. (2021). Parallel semantic processing in the flankers task: Evidence from the N400. In BRAIN AND LANGUAGE (Vol. 219). ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2021.104965

Meade, G., Grainger, J., & Declerck, M. (2021). Friend or foe? Flankers reverse the direction of orthographic neighbourhood effects. In LANGUAGE COGNITION AND NEUROSCIENCE (Vol. 36, Issue 5, pp. 535–542). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2020.1849750

Meade, G., Grainger, J., & Holcomb, P. J. (2019). Task modulates ERP effects of orthographic neighborhood for pseudowords but not words. In NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA (Vol. 129, pp. 385–396). PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.02.014

Meade, G., Grainger, J., Midgley, K. J., Holcomb, P. J., & Emmorey, K. (2019). ERP Effects of masked orthographic neighbour priming in deaf readers. In LANGUAGE COGNITION AND NEUROSCIENCE (Vol. 34, Issue 8, pp. 1016–1026). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2019.1614201

Meade, G., Grainger, J., Midgley, K. J., Holcomb, P. J., & Emmorey, K. (2020). An ERP investigation of orthographic precision in deaf and hearing readers. In NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA (Vol. 146). PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107542

Meade, G., Mahnich, C., Holcomb, P. J., & Grainger, J. (2021). Orthographic neighborhood density modulates the size of transposed-letter priming effects. In COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE (Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 948–959). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00905-w

Mirault, J., Albrand, J.-P., Lassault, J., Grainger, J., & Ziegler, J. C. (2021). Using Virtual Reality to Assess Reading Fluency in Children. In FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION (Vol. 6). FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.693355

Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2020). On the time it takes to judge grammaticality. In QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (Vol. 73, Issue 9, pp. 1460–1465). SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747021820913296

Mirault, J., Leflaec, C., & Grainger, J. (2022). Orthographic relatedness and transposed-word effects in the grammatical decision task. In ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS (Vol. 84, Issue 3, pp. 1043–1051). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-021-02421-y

Mirault, J., Massol, S., & Grainger, J. (n.d.). Effects of non-adjacent letter repetition in the same-different matching task. In LANGUAGE COGNITION AND NEUROSCIENCE. ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2022.2061022

Mirault, J., Snell, J., & Grainger, J. (2018). You That Read Wrong Again! A Transposed-Word Effect in Grammaticality Judgments. In PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (Vol. 29, Issue 12, pp. 1922–1929). SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618806296

Mirault, J., Snell, J., & Grainger, J. (2019a). Reading without spaces revisited: The role of word identification and sentence-level constraints. In ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA (Vol. 195, pp. 22–29). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2019.03.001

Mirault, J., Snell, J., & Grainger, J. (2019b). Reading without spaces: The role of precise letter order. In ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS (Vol. 81, Issue 3, pp. 846–860). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-018-01648-6

Mirault, J., Yeaton, J., Broqua, F., Dufau, S., Holcomb, P. J., & Grainger, J. (2020). Parafoveal-on-foveal repetition effects in sentence reading: A co-registered eye-tracking and electroencephalogram study. In PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY (Vol. 57, Issue 8). WILEY. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13553

Pegado, F., & Grainger, J. (2019). Dissociating lexical and sublexical contributions to transposed-word effects. In ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA (Vol. 201). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2019.102943

Pegado, F., & Grainger, J. (2020). A Transposed-Word Effect in Same-Different Judgments to Sequences of Words. In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION (Vol. 46, Issue 7, pp. 1364–1371). AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000776

Pegado, F., & Grainger, J. (2021). On the noisy spatiotopic encoding of word positions during reading: Evidence from the change-detection task. In PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW (Vol. 28, Issue 1, pp. 189–196). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-020-01819-3

Pegado, F., Wen, Y., Mirault, J., Dufau, S., & Grainger, J. (2021). An ERP investigation of transposed-word effects in same-different matching. In NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA (Vol. 153). PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.107753

Scaltritti, M., Dufau, S., & Grainger, J. (2018). Stimulus orientation and the first-letter advantage. In ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA (Vol. 183, pp. 37–42). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.009

Scaltritti, M., Grainger, J., & Dufau, S. (2021). Letter and word identification in the fovea and parafovea. In ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS (Vol. 83, Issue 5, pp. 2071–2082). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-021-02273-6

Snell, J., Grainger, J., & Meeter, M. (n.d.). Relative letter-position coding revisited. In PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW. SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-02039-z

Torres, A. R., Mota, N. B., Adamy, N., Naschold, A., Lima, T. Z., Copelli, M., Weissheimer, J., Pegado, F., & Ribeiro, S. (2021). Selective Inhibition of Mirror Invariance for Letters Consolidated by Sleep Doubles Reading Fluency. In CURRENT BIOLOGY (Vol. 31, Issue 4, p. 742+). CELL PRESS. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.11.031

Vandendaele, A., & Grainger, J. (2022). Now you see it, now you don’t: Flanker presence induces the word concreteness effect. In COGNITION (Vol. 218). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2021.104945

Vandendaele, A., Snell, J., & Grainger, J. (2019). Letter migration errors reflect spatial pooling of orthographic information. In ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS (Vol. 81, Issue 6, pp. 2026–2036). SPRINGER. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-019-01746-z

Wen, Y., Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2021a). Fast Syntax in the Brain: Electrophysiological Evidence from the Rapid Parallel Visual Presentation Paradigm (RPVP). In JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION (Vol. 47, Issue 1, pp. 99–112). AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000811

Wen, Y., Mirault, J., & Grainger, J. (2021b). The transposed-word effect revisited: The role of syntax in word position coding. In LANGUAGE COGNITION AND NEUROSCIENCE (Vol. 36, Issue 5, pp. 668–673). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2021.1880608

Wen, Y., Snell, J., & Grainger, J. (2019). Parallel, cascaded, interactive processing of words during sentence reading. In COGNITION (Vol. 189, pp. 221–226). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.013

Yeaton, J. D., & Grainger, J. (2022). Positional cueing, string location variability, and letter-in-string identification. In ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA (Vol. 223). ELSEVIER. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103510