Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity.


  • Landerl Karin
  • Ramus Franck
  • Moll Kristina
  • Lyytinen Heikki
  • Leppänen Paavo H T
  • Lohvansuu Kaisa
  • O'Donovan Michael
  • Williams Julie
  • Bartling Jürgen
  • Bruder Jennifer
  • Kunze Sarah
  • Neuhoff Nina
  • Tóth Dénes
  • Honbolygó Ferenc
  • Csépe Valéria
  • Bogliotti Caroline
  • Iannuzzi Stéphanie
  • Chaix Yves
  • Démonet Jean-François
  • Longeras Emilie
  • Valdois Sylviane
  • Chabernaud Camille
  • Delteil-Pinton Florence
  • Billard Catherine
  • George Florence
  • Ziegler Johannes C
  • Comte-Gervais Isabelle
  • Soares-Boucaud Isabelle
  • Gérard Christophe-Loïc
  • Blomert Leo
  • Vaessen Anniek
  • Gerretsen Patty
  • Ekkebus Michel
  • Brandeis Daniel
  • Maurer Urs
  • Schulz Enrico
  • van Der Mark Sanne
  • Müller-Myhsok Bertram
  • Schulte-Körne Gerd

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BACKGROUND: The relationship between phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term/working memory (ST/WM) and diagnostic category is investigated in control and dyslexic children, and the extent to which this depends on orthographic complexity. METHODS: General cognitive, phonological and literacy skills were tested in 1,138 control and 1,114 dyslexic children speaking six different languages spanning a large range of orthographic complexity (Finnish, Hungarian, German, Dutch, French, English). RESULTS: Phoneme deletion and RAN were strong concurrent predictors of developmental dyslexia, while verbal ST/WM and general verbal abilities played a comparatively minor role. In logistic regression models, more participants were classified correctly when orthography was more complex. The impact of phoneme deletion and RAN-digits was stronger in complex than in less complex orthographies. CONCLUSIONS: Findings are largely consistent with the literature on predictors of dyslexia and literacy skills, while uniquely demonstrating how orthographic complexity exacerbates some symptoms of dyslexia.

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