Background/Study Context: Associative memory deficit and executive functioning deficit are two alternativebut nonexclusiveaccounts of the episodic memory deficit observed in aging. The first explain the episodic memory decline generally observed in aging by an associative memory deficit (memory decline per se), whereas the second explains it by an executive functioning deficit. This distinction could be critical in early discrimination between healthy aging and very mild Alzheimer's-type dementia. Methods: Memory performance was measured in older adults (n=20) and paired younger participants (n=20), whereas the facial expression and auditory context (spoken voice) associated with the face were manipulated between study and test. Recollection and familiarity were estimated using a remember/know judgment, and source memory performance was obtained depending on the information to retrieve. Results: Although no between-group difference was observed for correctly recognized old faces, older participants made more false alarms than younger ones, thus revealing lower discriminability (d'). Facial expression change decreased recognition for all participants, whereas auditory context change decreased recognition only for younger participants. Remember/know judgments revealed age-related deficits in both recollection and familiarity, the relative decrease in familiarity reported by older adults was particularly large in the expression change conditions, and a disadvantage in source memory performance was particularly pronounced when the task was to retrieve auditory context associated with the face at study. Conclusions: The present findings show that age-related associative memory differences occur with familiarity as well as recollection and are observed in situations that do not necessarily require conscious retrieval. This age-related decline is more prominent for multimodal (face-auditory context) than for intraitem (face-expression) associations. The value of exploring both memory trace and memory judgment was discussed, and potential applications for the development of neuropsychological tools for memory assessment in aging were highlighted.