The emergence of explicit knowledge from implicit learning


  • Goujon Annabelle
  • Didierjean André
  • Poulet Sarah

document type



Substantial evidence has highlighted the ability of observers to incidentally extract statistical contingencies present in visual environments. This study examined whether the knowledge extracted regarding statistical contingencies is unconscious initially, even when it becomes fully accessible to conscious awareness after extensive training. Using a ``typical'' contextual cuing procedure adapted to real-world scenes, we first observed that, after extensive training in searching for a target within repeated scenes, knowledge about regularities was associated with conscious awareness (Experiment 1). However, both subjective and objective measures of consciousness revealed that in the early phase of training, learning of regular structures first takes place at an unconscious level (Experiments 2 and 3). These results are discussed in the light of the causal relationships between learning and consciousness.

more information