Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents


  • Hoffman Adam
  • Dumas Florence
  • Loose Florence
  • Smeding Annique
  • Kurtz-Costes Beth
  • Régner Isabelle

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Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (Mage = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed.

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